Journal of Investigative Dermatology RSS feed.
Updated: 24 min 5 sec ago
The human skin is colonized by a diverse population of microorganisms with most of them being harmless or even beneficial to their host. In the last decade, in vitro human skin model equivalents have been developed to assess the interplay between the skin and the microbiota. However, most studies have only looked at the impact of individual microbiota species. Therefore, there is still the need for a human skin model that would enable to maintain the diversity of skin microbiome found in vivo in human.
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) cycle through periods of growth (anagen) and rest (telogen). HFSCs located in the stem cell-containing compartment called the bulge have been shown to be the cells responsible for growing hair shafts de novo, contributing to wound healing, and are the cells of origin for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Our lab previously showed that HFSC quiescence is a tumor suppressor mechanism; the initiation of SCC by HFSCs requires active hair cycling. We are therefore exploring whether regulation of HFSC activation and the hair cycle can influence SCC initiation.
Many dermatology societies have instituted a call to action for increased diversity in the field. One solution is to offer a dermatology information session targeted toward underrepresented minority undergraduate students (UMUS). Providing students with a venue to learn about dermatology and offering the opportunity to shadow and perform research may increase UMUS’ interest in dermatology. Undergraduate students were recruited to attend the event through premedical and minority student group listservs.
The therapeutic strategies outlined within our study represent the first acne treatment recommendations in patients who have pre-existing lupus; this patient population requires a highly individualized treatment approach, as their disease state makes them particularly vulnerable to adverse effects from medications. Surprisingly, there have been no prior studies investigating which medications can and cannot be safely used to treat acne in patients who also have lupus. We sought to systematically review all available literature concerning the safety of commonly prescribed oral acne agents specifically in patients with lupus.
Over the last two decades, the annual melanoma incidence has increased by 20% in the Latino population. Latinos/Hispanics often present with advance-staged melanoma (stage III and IV) and have an overall worse prognosis when compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Thus, new public health campaigns are warranted to target this specific population. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 Latino tattoo artists in Salt Lake City, UT. Although Latinos only constitute 13% of the population in Utah, Latino tattoo artists have a high percentage of Latino clientele (mean: 51%, range: 25%-93%) and repeat customers (mean: 72%, range: 50%-90%).
Immunotherapies have made significant strides in their development and use in advanced cancers by blocking immune checkpoints and interfering with normal functioning of the immune system. By deregulating the immune system, these treatments can cause cutaneous adverse events (AEs) such as maculopapular rash, pruritus and more. The onset of these AEs can cause delays in treatments and considerably impact quality of life (QoL); therefore compromising the survival of the patient. It is imperative to catch the AEs early; remotely monitoring patients may address this concern.
High levels of Ultra-Violet Radiation (UVR) are known to induce important biological effects on the skin, including the delayed pigmentation observed with tanning. p53 is a major transcription factor highly expressed in keratinocytes after UVR that is known to induce melanogenesis through expression of SCF (Stem Cell Factor), POMC (Pro-Opiomelanocortin), and other paracrine factors. In UV-irradiated human skin, melanocyte numbers increase accompanying tanning, yet the role of keratinocyte p53 in driving melanocyte proliferation as well as melanogenesis after UV exposure is poorly understood.
BACKGROUND: Facial skin coloration, affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, has substantial individual variations. Previous studies on facial skin coloration mostly focused on its correlation with age, but little was done to evaluate the associated environmental and genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To identify the environmental and genetic factors associated with facial skin coloration. METHODS: We cropped facial cheek images from 11,699 Han Chinese subjects aged between 18 and 87 (54% men; mean [SD] age, 40  years).
Melanocytic nevus count is a major risk factor for potentially fatal cutaneous melanoma, but its association with sunburns has not been well established in young children. We sought to review the literature on sunburn history and nevus development in young children. Of the total 197 publications that resulted from our PubMed search in February 2019, eight met inclusion criteria of case-control or cohort study design; included data on nevus count and lifetime history of sun burns; studied children, over half of whom were under the age of twelve years; and was published in English.
The standard of care for a melanoma in-situ (MIS) is surgical excision. However, residual MIS at the margins is not uncommon. For patients with residual MIS after excision who are reluctant to undergo additional surgical procedures, treatment with imiquimod 5% cream, an immunomodulatory agent, has been explored as an off-label treatment option. We present a case series of 34 patients who had positive surgical margins after excision of melanoma and melanoma in-situ, who underwent adjuvant treatment with imiquimod 5% cream rather than repeat surgical excision.
Melanoma risk is increased in fairer-skinned individuals. Interestingly, melanomas in patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) are reported less frequently than one would expect given their extremely fair skin. To date, fewer than 70 instances of malignant melanoma in OCA patients have been reported. We present the case of a 50-year old African American female with OCA and a medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and deep vein thromboses, who presented with an amelanotic lesion on her lateral upper neck.
Backgroud: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new option for tumor treatment. The effect of PDT is largely dependent on its ability to induce cell death. During PDT, photo-sensitizers can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after exposure to appropriated light source. ROS has been proven to be able to induce autophagy, which has been shown to have significant effect on apoptosis and necrosis. To improve the efficacy of PDT, it is important to understand the feature and mechanism of the interaction among oxidization, autophagy and apoptosis, and their impact on cellular response to PDT.
Checkpoint inhibitors are currently frontline therapy for stage IV melanoma patients, however many patients do not respond to them. Options for these patients are limited and there is a critical need for new therapies. The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in determining treatment efficacy. Tumors with poor T cell infiltration and a non-inflamed, myeloid rich TME typically do not respond to checkpoint therapy. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMS) are abundant in the TME and can suppress adaptive immune responses.
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disorder with high cost for therapies often complicated with serious adverse effects, thus there is a need to develop cheaper, safe and effective mechanism and target-based agents for its treatment. Natural agents that can rescind molecular defects associated with psoriasis could be developed as agents for its management. We examined the associated mechanism of fisetin-induced anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory responses in 2D normal human epidermal keratinocytes(NHEK), peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) and CD4+ T-cell cultures, and in T-cell activated 3D full-thickness human skin model of psoriasis.
Mammalian epidermis positioned at the interface with the environment, protecting underlying tissues from external challenges such as pollutants. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major contaminator of air pollution particles, and emerging evidences indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a main component of DEPs, cause skin irritation and inflammation through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling pathways. In particular, prior studies revealed that an AhR activation induces apoptotic-cell death via an increased level of cellular ceramide, an apoptotic molecule.
Liangxue Jiedu Formula is a Chinese medicine formula prepared from medicinal herbs and used in China for the treatment of psoriasis. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of Liangxue Jiedu Formula preparations, a Thermo Q Exactive™ Plus Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer was applied for simultaneous identification of multiple constituents. The sample was filtered through a 0.22μm syringe filter, and 10μl was injected into the LC instrument for LC-MS analysis. In addition, an in vivo mouse model of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation was used to investigate the effect of Liangxue Jiedu Formula.
Background: Effective delivery of active ingredients into the pilosebaceous follicle is necessary for efficacy of topical acne treatments. To achieve follicular delivery, the active molecule must penetrate the sebum-filled pilosebaceous duct. FMX101 4% is a non-aqueous, oil-based topical foam formulation of minocycline developed to be miscible with sebum, thus facilitating penetration of minocycline into the pilosebaceous duct. Objective: Compare the impact of 2 formulations, FMX101 4% and an oil-in-water emulsion (OIWE), on the physical properties of model human sebum.
Objective: Investigate susceptibility and acquired resistance of Cutibacterium acnes to FMX101 4% topical minocycline foam and comparator antibiotics. Methods: Conducted studies to determine 1) minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of FMX101 4% against Bacteroides fragilis (0.016 – 0.063 μg/mL); 2) susceptibility of C. acnes to FMX101 4%, minocycline, and foam vehicle by broth and agar dilution; 3) MIC90 activity of FMX101 4% and comparators vs 102 C. acnes isolates and identify clonal type and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of resistant isolates through whole genome sequencing analysis; 4) minimal bactericidal concentration of FMX101 4% and minocycline vs clinical strains of C.
Despite the number of drugs and formulations designed for treating inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, the available tools for precisely studying their performance in situ have been limited. For this reason, there is a major need for techniques that can enable the direct visualization and quantification of small molecule Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). We have developed a quantitative imaging toolkit that utilizes Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy and is capable of detecting and tracking specific molecular species without the need for extrinsic labels.
Increased interferon (IFN) signaling is a prominent feature of dermatomyositis (DM), but mechanisms leading to IFN production in DM are not understood. As TLR7/8/9 activation can lead to type I IFN production, TLR7/8/9 antagonism may provide therapeutic benefit in DM. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 24-week trial of IMO-8400 (a novel investigational oligonucleotide TLR7/8/9 antagonist [Idera Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]) was conducted with 30 eligible participants randomized to treatment with IMO-8400 0.6 mg/kg, IMO-8400 1.8 mg/kg, or placebo.