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This randomized, observer-blinded, intrapatient comparative study sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of TCA 35% vs. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) 20% photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with extensive field cancerization and multiple AKs. Twenty-eight patients with at least five AKs in two comparable anatomical areas on the head were treated with TCA 35% and ALA PDT randomly assigned to each area. Their therapeutic efficacy, adverse events and cosmetic outcome were assessed by a blinded investigator at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment.
The choice for a profession in general and for MDs in particular regarding the decision to concentrate on a certain discipline is almost never straightforward and often entails a high degree of serendipity.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Cells to Surgery Quiz— In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Snapshot Dx Quiz— In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Dendritic cell (DC) subsets historically have been defined on the basis of morphology, physical properties, localization, molecular markers, and function. In an effort to better assess the diversity of blood DCs and monocytes without bias, Villani and colleagues used deep sequencing at the single cell level (scRNA-seq) to classify these cells from a single healthy individual. These studies identified six DC populations, including further division of previously designated DC populations and a subpopulation that forms the continuum between plasmatoid DCs and CD1C+ DCs.
Previous reports have established a fundamental relationship between sebum reduction and acne improvement. After identifying the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in sebaceous glands, Hunt and colleagues demonstrated that application of the ACC inhibitor olumacostat glasaretil (OG) suppressed de novo lipid synthesis in human sebocytes in culture and reduced hamster ear sebaceous gland size. Thus, in accord with recent clinical trials, these results support the well-tolerated targeting of ACC for suppression of sebaceous gland activity to reduce sebum, an important factor in acne pathogenesis.
Maintenance of hair follicle (HF) stem cell quiescence and self-renewal are key functions of a specific cellular niche represented by the HF bulge and adjacent cell populations. The unique context of this niche is crucial for normal HF functioning, but mechanisms implicated in its maintenance are still not quite clear. The Letter to the Editor by Sada et al. introduces a novel Slc1a3-CreER genetic mouse model which, in contrast to previously reported marking tools, selectively and highly efficiently demarcates the telogen bulge inner layer, one of the critical structural components of the bulge stem cell niche.
Vitiligo, the most common depigmenting disorder, is caused by immune destruction of melanocytes by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. One weakness in vitiligo management is the lack of an assessment method for active depigmentation. Beginning with reports about increased S100B levels in different inflammatory and tissue damage processes, Speeckaert et al. explored correlations between the S100B dynamics and vitiligo activity, identifying high circulating S100B levels in patients with active depigmentation which were strongly correlated with the extent of affected skin surface.
The 65th annual Montagna Symposium on the Biology of the Skin, “The Skin: Our Sensory Organ for Itch, Pain, Touch and Pleasure,” was held October 20–24, 2016, in Gleneden Beach, Oregon, USA. Gil Yosipovitch (University of Miami, Florida) served as Program Chair, with Ethan Lerner (Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston), Diana Bautista (University of California, Berkeley, California), Ellen A. Lumpkin (Columbia University, New York, New York), and Francis McGlone (Liverpool John Moores University, UK) serving as Session Chairs.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a research method used to determine the clinical benefit-to-cost ratio of a given intervention. CEA offers a standardized means of comparing cost-effectiveness among interventions. Changes in quality-adjusted life-years, disability-adjusted life-years, or survival and mortality are some of the common clinical benefit measures incorporated into CEA. Because accounting for all associated costs and benefits of an intervention is complex and potentially introduces uncertainty into the analysis, sensitivity analyses can be performed to test the analytic model under varying conditions.
Hunt et al. show that olumacostat glasaretil, an inhibitor of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, reduces saturated and monounsaturated fatty acyl chains in sebaceous lipids. Topical olumacostat glasaretil application decreases hamster ear sebaceous gland size and shows efficacy in treating patients with acne vulgaris. Olumacostat glasaretil-mediated sebum suppression may reduce Propionibacterium acnes growth and biofilm formation, comedogenesis, and inflammation.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory and debilitating disease of hair follicles with 1-4% prevalence and high morbidity. There is a dearth of information on the pathogenesis and immune dysregulation underlying HS therefore we carried out a detailed analysis of skin infiltrating T cells. Cells isolated from skin biopsies and blood from HS patients and healthy controls were analysed by 16-parameter flow cytometry to provide detailed profiles of CD4 T cell subsets. We observed substantial infiltration of inflammatory T cells with a striking Th17-skewed cytokine profile in HS skin, these cells expressed the Th17 lineage marker CD161 and IL-17, as well as other pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, IL-22, IFN-γ, and TNF.
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a prototype of heritable ectopic mineralization disorders, is caused in most cases by inactivating mutations in the ABCC6 gene. It was recently discovered that absence of ABCC6-mediated ATP release from the liver and consequently reduced plasma PPi levels underlie PXE. This study examined whether reduced levels of circulating PPi, an anti-mineralization factor, is the sole mechanism of PXE. The Abcc6-/- and Enpp1asj mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human ENPP1, an ectonucleotidase which generates PPi from ATP.
Extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) are ubiquitous in human tissues, circulation, and body fluids. Of these vesicles, exosomes are of growing interest among investigators across multiple fields, including dermatology. The characteristics of exosomes, their associated cargo (nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids), and downstream functions are vastly different, depending on the cell origin. Here, we review concepts in extracellular vesicle biology, with a focus on exosomes, highlighting recent studies in the field of dermatology.