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Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Cells to Surgery Quiz— In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a functionally heterogeneous and abundant class of RNAs acting in all cellular compartments that can form complexes with DNA, RNA, and proteins. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and techniques leading to the identification of DNA-RNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein complexes have allowed the functional characterization of a small set of lncRNAs. However, characterization of the full repertoire of lncRNAs playing essential roles in a number of normal and dysfunctional cellular processes remains an important goal for future studies.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) SnapshotDx Quiz— In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Brand and colleagues reported the potential of JP4-039, a gramicidin S-conjugated nitroxide, as a topical antioxidant for the prevention of clinical radiation-induced oxidative stress skin damage via targeting of the mitochondria. Application of this agent to mouse skin or human skin equivalents preserved the skin’s antioxidant capacity, prevented disruption of the skin barrier, reduced reactive oxygen species damage to DNA, diminished apoptosis, decreased collagen deposition, and reduced inflammatory infiltrates following exposure to radiation.
Elevated basal serum levels of the mast cell mediator tryptase have been identified in family cohorts with symptom complexes characterized by cutaneous flushing and pruritus, dysautonomia, functional gastrointestinal symptoms, chronic pain, and connective tissue abnormalities; however, the relevance of this increase remains unclear in light of the lack of mast cell disease or activation in these individuals. Lyons and colleagues recently identified germline duplications and triplications in the α-tryptase gene TPSAB1 in an analysis of 35 families with increased serum tryptase levels and complex clinical complaints.
Holocrine secretion by sebocytes does not occur via increased cell volume, but rather from programmed DNA fragmentation and death, which differs from apoptosis. Moreover, it can be enhanced with increased rates of induced terminal sebocyte differentiation. Fischer et al. address the mode of holocrine sebocyte secretion, and they demonstrate that its mechanism differs from that of apoptosis, necroptosis, and cornification, being a multistep, cell-specific lysosomal DNase2-mediated mode of programmed cell death.
IL-6 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that is elevated in serum and skin lesions of patients with psoriasis. Anti-IL-6 therapies, however, which are effective for rheumatoid arthritis, are either ineffective for psoriasis or can induce new-onset psoriasis-like disease. Fritz et al. provide a potential explanation for these clinical observations by examining IL-17C-driven psoriasis-like disease in mice with an IL-6-deficient genetic background. These mice displayed slower onset skin disease initially, but then worsened over time, suggesting that a lack of IL-6 led to compensatory proinflammatory effects by other cytokines, which eventually worsened the psoriatic inflammation.
With the continuously rising incidence and changing populations of patients with basal cell carcinoma, evidence about the different treatment modalities is mandatory. Randomized clinical trials, such as the surgery versus imiquimod for nodular superficial basal cell carcinoma trial, can provide this evidence. Patients can then be informed about all aspects of alternative treatment options so that conscious, shared decisions can be made.
Cutaneous nerves extend throughout the dermis and epidermis and control both the functional and reparative capacity of the skin. Denervation of the skin impairs cutaneous healing, presenting evidence that nerves provide cues essential for timely wound repair. Sebastian et al. demonstrate that electrical stimulation promotes reinnervation and neural differentiation in human acute wounds, thus accelerating wound repair.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation decreases type I procollagen production mainly by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Because further epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are unclear, we investigated the roles of DNA methylation and histone acetylation in UV-induced regulation of collagen type I alpha 2 (COL1A2) transcription in human dermal fibroblasts(HDFs). Anacardic acid (AA), a p300 histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, rescued the UV-induced decrease of type I procollagen expression in HDFs.
The factors that contribute to the development of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among patients with psoriasis are not well known; however, systemic inflammation is believed to be important. On the basis of recent laboratory work demonstrating that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that patients with psoriasis who develop MDD are at increased risk of subsequently developing PsA. We utilized The Health Improvement Network, a primary care medical records database, to identify 73,447 individuals with psoriasis.
Vitiligo is the most common cutaneous depigmentation disorder worldwide, yet little is known about specific risk factors for disease development. Utilizing data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of 51,337 white women, we examined the associations between (1) pigmentary traits and (2) reactions to sun exposure and risk of incident vitiligo. NHS participants responded to a question about clinician-diagnosed vitiligo and year of diagnosis (2001 or before, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, 2010-2011, or 2012+).
Vitiligo is a chronic skin condition characterized by progressive depigmentation of the skin. S100B is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein expressed in melanocytes, which has been proposed as a marker of melanocyte cytotoxicity. While the use of S100B as a biomarker in melanoma is well established, its association with vitiligo activity has not yet been investigated. Here, we show that S100B serum levels were significantly increased in patients with active non-segmental vitiligo and strongly correlated with the affected body surface area.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but life-threatening mucocutaneous diseases. SJS/TEN mostly manifest as a reaction to new drug use, but little is known about their incidence and epidemiology. We conducted a large observational study on the epidemiology of SJS/TEN using data from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Among 551 validated SJS/TEN cases, we calculated an incidence rate of 5.76 SJS/TEN cases/million person-years between 1995 and 2013, which was consistent throughout the study period, and was highest in patients aged 1-10 years and ≥80 years.