Journal of Investigative Dermatology RSS feed.
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For nearly 50 years, the European Society for Dermatological Research (ESDR) has made great efforts in supporting its members to advance research in cutaneous biology and related subjects, thereby improving our ability to maintain or restore normal structure and function of skin, i.e. skin health.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) SnapshotDx Quiz— In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Cells to Surgery Quiz— In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
The authors of this study explain that patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and nonlesional skin. They go on to describe how patients with AD are typically exposed to emollients on a daily basis and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, thereby increasing their risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposure to the chemical ingredients found in these topical preparations. They systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in patients with AD, and also in animals with experimentally induced dermatitis.
High-throughput biology presents unique opportunities and challenges for dermatological research. Drawing on a small handful of exemplary studies, we review some of the major lessons of these new technologies. We caution against several common errors and introduce helpful statistical concepts that may be unfamiliar to researchers without experience in bioinformatics. We recommend specific software tools that can aid dermatologists at varying levels of computational literacy, including platforms with command line and graphical user interfaces.
The past four decades have witnessed increasing incidences of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC), primarily basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Because cancer registries often do not capture NMSC or record only the first tumor, the true disease burden may not be evident. Lieter and colleagues evaluated data from 1970-2012 from the Saarland and Schleswig-Holstein federal states in Germany. A continuous long-term increase in incidence of these cancers was observed, and linear extrapolation revealed that both the NMSC risk and disease burden are likely to increase through 2030 due to increased UV exposure and an aging population, while NMSC mortality is predicted to remain stable or even decrease.
Because approximately 65% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) arise from actinic keratoses, it is important to understand the pathomechanisms underlying development of these lesions and their progression to malignancy. Activin, which is a member of the transforming growth factor β family, is strongly upregulated in skin wounds, human basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and SCCs. Antsiferova and colleagues recently demonstrated that activin overexpression is an early event in skin carcinogenesis. In a mouse model of human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8)-induced skin cancers, activin promoted formation of skin tumors and was associated with loss of epidermal γδ T cells and accumulation of αβ T cells in the skin.
Leiter et al. report on the increasing incidence of keratinocyte cancers in Germany. The true population burden is even larger then reported, because many of these new patients will develop multiple keratinocyte cancers. Keratinocyte cancer puts a large burden on health care systems worldwide. Prevention and management strategies are needed to maintain high quality of care for all patients.
T follicular helper cells contribute to the development of long-lasting humoral immunity by germinal center formation. Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place in germinal centers leading to the generation of memory B cells and plasma cells. As such, T follicular helper cells impact immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, and cancer. This necessitates further understanding of how T follicular helper cells are regulated in health and disease. The current study by Levin et al. builds on prior work to further substantiate a critical role for skin migratory dendritic cells and in particular Langerhans cells at governing T follicular helper and germinal center formation after intradermal immunization with HIV p24-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles.
Multiple genomic mutations, especially those involving the NF-κB pathway, have been characterized in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. However, its genomic profiling remains limited given its rarity. In a recent study, Mareschal et al. performed next-generation sequencing and whole-exome sequencing, identifying new driver genes while also confirming the role of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in the molecular pathogenesis of the disease.
The study by Sahoo et al. established miR-211 as a critical regulator of cellular metabolism in vitiligo cells. miR-211, which is expressed from the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 intronic region, regulates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial energy metabolism in vitiligo. Loss of miR-211 in melanocytes was shown to alter expression patterns of newly identified target genes, and those that regulate respiratory functions in melanocytes are among them. This study highlights the importance of miR-211 for the melanocyte biology and development of vitiligo.
Mutated oncogenic KIT is a therapeutic target in melanoma. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial on the KIT inhibitor nilotinib in patients with unresectable melanomas harboring KIT alteration. The primary endpoint was the response rate (complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) following RECIST criteria) at 6 months. Pharmacodynamic studies using KIT sequencing, qPCR array and immunostaining of downstream KIT effectors were performed during treatment.Twenty-five patients were included and received 400 mg oral nilotinib twice daily.
Ulcerated primary melanomas are associated with an inflammatory tumor micro-environment. We hypothesised that systemic pro-inflammatory states and anti-inflammatory medications are also associated with a diagnosis of ulcerated melanoma. In a cross-sectional study of 787 patients with newly-diagnosed clinical stage IB or II melanoma, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for the association of pro-inflammatory factors (high body mass index (BMI), diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and smoking) or use of anti-inflammatory medications (statins, aspirin, corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), with ulcerated primary melanoma using regression models and subgroup analyses to control for melanoma thickness and mitotic rate.