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These authors from the University of Münster evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and correlation of HRQoL with secondary clinical and patient-reported outcomes in a subset of patients from a trial of patients with atopic dermatitis treated with dupilumab. Patients were randomized to 300-mg weekly subcutaneous dupilumab or placebo for 12 weeks. The Quality of Life Index of Atopic Dermatitis (QoLIAD) score and its correlation with efficacy outcomes were assessed in 64 adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.
More than 30 years have passed since I chose dermatology as my medical specialty. Time really flies! The past 30 years have been full of excitement, and most of that excitement relates to science. I am really lucky to be a scientist. I hope my personal story will be interesting or encouraging to some talented young people who have unlimited possibilities before them.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Cells to Surgery Quiz. In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) SnapshotDx Quiz. In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article that provides new information about that disease entity.
Genetic variation in skin pigmentation in human populations may be related to adaptations to light environments, with stronger pigmentation near equatorial regions providing photoprotection and lighter pigmentation in northern or southern regions offering increased vitamin D production. While 15 genes have been associated with skin pigmentation, suggesting that this trait is relatively simple, most studies have focused on western Eurasian populations. Because African populations harbor the greatest range of pigmentation and have historically been left out of pigmentation studies, two groups recently probed the genetic architecture of these populations.
Although surgical excision is the standard treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC), non-invasive therapies are useful alternatives and can yield good cosmetic outcomes. In a head-to-head noninferiority randomized controlled study comparing 5% imiquimod cream, 5-fluorouracil cream, and methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy, Jansen and colleagues demonstrated that, at 5 years, imiquimod is superior to the other two treatments for patients with superficial BCC. The probabilities of tumor-free survival were 80.5%, 70.0%, and 62.7% for imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, and methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy, respectively.
Complex cutaneous disorders result from the combined effect of many different genes and environmental factors, with individual genetic variants often having only a modest effect on disease risk. The ability to examine large numbers of samples is required for correlating genetic variants with diseases/traits. Technological advances in high-throughput genotyping, along with mapping of the human genome and its associated inter-individual variation, have allowed genetic variants to be analyzed at high density in large case-control cohorts for many diseases, including several major skin diseases.
The mechanisms by which melanins are transferred from melanocytes and stored within keratinocytes to generate skin pigmentation are hotly debated. Correia et al. and Hurbain et al. provide evidence that melanin cores of melanosomes are secreted from melanocytes and taken up and stored within non-degradative membranous organelles in keratinocytes in the basal epidermis of human skin.
Adipose tissue plays essential roles in various aspects of skin physiology, from regulating hair follicle morphogenesis to wound healing. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is important for the maintenance of adipose tissue and has been implicated in some types of hair loss; however, its function during the hair cycle is still unclear. Sardella et al. investigate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in hair follicle morphogenesis using a novel global peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-null mouse.
Cellulitis is commonly misdiagnosed, with resultant health care expenditures and complications from antibiotic overprescription. Ko et al. evaluate the use of thermal imaging to aid in the diagnosis of cellulitis, with promising results. Limitations include a small sample size and questionable applicability to bilateral leg findings, where cellulitis is unlikely regardless of temperature differential. Nevertheless, this technology has potential to improve patient care.
Intense chronic itch significantly reduces quality of life for atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, impairing daily activity. While abnormal itch sensation can be induced by innocuous stimuli, known as alloknesis, the mechanisms driving this process remain obscure. Psychological and environmental stimuli are known to aggravate AD symptoms. Recently, the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (HSD11β1), which is expressed in keratinocytes, has been implicated in maintaining homeostasis against environmental stimuli by activating endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs).
Interleukin-17C (IL-17C) is a functionally distinct member of the IL-17 family that was implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here we confirmed that IL-17C is involved in psoriasis and explored potential roles for IL-17C in atopic dermatitis (AD). An anti-IL-17C antibody, MOR106, was generated that potently and selectively binds to human and mouse IL-17C, thereby inhibiting the binding of IL-17C to its IL-17RE receptor. The antibody inhibited cutaneous inflammation in an IL-23-induced psoriatic-like skin inflammation model.
Chemokines influence tumor metastasis by targeting tumor, stromal and hematopoietic cells. Characterizing the chemokine mRNA expression profile of human primary melanoma samples, we found CXCL5 significantly upregulated in stage T4 primary melanomas when compared to thin melanomas (T1 stage). To characterize the role of CXCL5 in melanoma progression, we established a metastasizing murine xenograft model using CXCL5 overexpressing (CXCL5ox) human melanoma cells. CXCL5 had no effect on melanoma proliferation in vitro and on primary tumor growth in vivo, but CXCL5ox tumors recruited high amounts of neutrophils and exhibited significantly increased lymphangiogenesis in our SCID mouse model.
Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation in basal keratinocytes stimulates inflammation via the Ca2+-dependent production of mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). In this study, we investigated PAR-2 calcium signaling and the consequent production of inflammatory mediators in differentiated human primary keratinocytes (DhPKs). Stimulation with the PAR-2 activating peptide SLIGKV promoted Ca2+ store depletion in both undifferentiated human primary keratinocytes (UhPKs) and DhPKs.
Dapsone-induced hypersensitivity reactions may cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). It has been reported that HLA-B*13:01 is strongly associated with dapsone-induced hypersensitivity reactions among leprosy patients. However, the phenotype specificity and detailed immune mechanism of HLA-B*13:01 remains unclear. We investigated the genetic predisposition, HLA-B*13:01 function, and cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) involved in pathogenesis of dapsone-SCAR.
Psoriasis (PSO) is a chronic immune-mediated disease that represents a unique model for investigating inflammation at local and systemic levels. Bioactive lipid mediators (LM) are potent compounds reported to play a role in the development and resolution of inflammation. Currently, it is not known to what extent these LM are involved in PSO pathophysiology and related metabolic dysfunction. Here we use targeted and untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) approaches to quantify LM in skin and peripheral blood from PSO and compared them to those of healthy subjects.