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Persistent Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation by the Histamine H4 Receptor in Spinal Neurons Underlies Chronic Itch
Effect of Omalizumab on Blood Basophil Counts in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic/Spontaneous Urticaria
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Multicenter Retrospective Study of 377 Adult Patients from the United States
Zika virus is an emergent virus targeting the skin. Ji-Ae et al. (2018) explore the interactions between Zika virus and skin cells. They showed that human keratinocytes play an important role in control of initial infection via the interaction with retinoic acid–inducible gene receptors.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) SnapshotDx Quiz. In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question relates to the clinical image above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article by Wilkinson et al. (https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.07.028).
These researchers from Rotterdam explain that despite the high and rising incidence rate of keratinocyte cancer (KC) and the importance of incorporating patient values into evidence-based care, few studies have focused on the perspectives of patients with KC. Their aim was to identify the needs and preferences of patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding care. They carried out a qualitative study consisting of three focus groups with patients with BCC and three focus groups with patients with SCC.
Regular use of efficient sunscreens has been recommended to minimize the risks of skin aging and cancer caused by long-term exposure to UVR. Studies in cultured cells have shown that agglomerated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) induce cytotoxicity, prompting some groups to question the safety of nanoparticulate-based sunscreens. Mohammed and colleagues addressed this concern using multiphoton tomography paired with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Following repeated hourly and daily application of topical ZnO-NP to the skin of human volunteers, these investigators reported minimal NP penetration through the stratum corneum and no detectable morphological or redox changes indicative of cellular toxicity, supporting the safety of repeated use of ZnO-NP-formulated sunscreens.
Editorial note: Welcome to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology (JID) Cells to Surgery Quiz. In this monthly online-only quiz, the first question (“What is your diagnosis?”) relates to the clinical images above, while additional questions concern the findings reported in a JID article by Hering et al. that provides new information about that disease entity (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.05.031).
Following sun exposure, the skin activates two protection programs. Within minutes, the UV radiation stress response involving proliferation, inflammation, DNA repair and the immune system is activated, and then within hours and days of exposure, pigment production by epidermal melanocytes occurs. Both responses provide sun protection, but the mechanisms regulating these temporally differing responses remain unclear. Malcov-Brog and colleagues demonstrated that UVB exposure every 48 h induces greater skin pigmentation than exposure every 24 h without an associated increase in the stress response.
Chronic itch, defined as itch lasting longer than 6 weeks, is a highly prevalent and debilitating symptom known to profoundly and negatively affect quality of life. The development of effective targeted therapies for some chronic itch disorders such as atopic dermatitis has given widespread recognition to the importance of measuring itch in clinical trials. Clinical trials now use itch measurement as a primary outcome measure, and steps toward the standardization of itch assessment are being made to meet the growing need for reliably measuring itch and its impact on quality of life in the clinical research setting.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with persistent pruritus. To clarify its molecular mechanism, it is important to establish a mouse model similar to the phenotypes of atopic dermatitis patients, particularly in exhibiting scratching behavior. Ikk2, a component of the IκB kinase complex, exerts pro-inflammatory responses, whereas its deficiency in keratinocytes paradoxically causes skin inflammation. In this study, we sought to generate a mouse model exhibiting skin inflammation by which dermal fibroblasts lack Ikk2 expression and evaluate whether cutaneous inflammatory phenotypes are similar to those of atopic dermatitis patients.
Despite extensive discovery about the mutations underlying genetic skin disorders, there have been few therapeutic advances. Better understanding of the molecular changes that may lead to the phenotypic manifestations of genetic disorders may lead to the discovery of new pharmacologic interventions. The ichthyoses are characterized by scaling, inflammation, and an impaired epidermal barrier. Recent studies have uncovered T helper type 17 skewing in ichthyotic skin, resembling psoriasis, and high frequencies of IL-17– and IL-22–expressing T cells in blood, correlating with severity and transepidermal water loss.
Myosin Vb (Myo5b) is an unconventional myosin involved in the actin-dependent transport and tethering of intracellular organelles. In the epidermis, granular keratinocytes accumulate cytoplasmic lamellar bodies (LB), secretory vesicles released at the junction with the stratum corneum which participate actively in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier. We have previously demonstrated that LB biogenesis is controlled by the Rab11a GTPase, known for its ability to recruit the Myo5b motor. In order to better characterize the molecular pathway that controls LB trafficking, we analyzed the role of F-actin and Myo5b in the epidermis.